Alzheimer's disease is the most common dementing disorder. The pathophysiology remains unknown, although several features are associated with its presence. These include genetic factors, excessive NMDA stimulation, a reduction in choline acetyltransferase activity, the presence of amyloid-beta plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles and neuroinflammation.
These changes seem to start in the nucleus basalis of Meynert and progress through the cortex. This leads to a progressive, irreversible, neurodegenerative illness with cognitive loss, behavioural changes and a loss in independence being the major clinical symptoms. Treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
In Alzheimer’s disease, it is in the interest of the patient to ________ the effects of acetylcholine.
Extra info: Since there is a reduction in the production and neurotransmission of acetylcholine, therapy can be aimed at increasing the effects of acetylcholine.
In Alzheimer’s disease, it is in the interest of the patient to __________ the glutamate activity at the NMDA receptor.
Extra info: It is the chronic and excessive stimulation of the NMDA receptor by glutamate that leads to some of the pathological changes seen in Alzheimer's disease.
Which of the following is NOT a criteria for dementia?
Extra info: If the disturbance develops over a short period of time, it is wiser to consider delirium since dementias are a progressive disease and present themselves over a long period of time. It is also important to remember that the criteria require some evidence of a loss in functioning.
Rivastigmine is an acetylcholine-esterase inhibitor and is used for the treatment of dementia. What is the primary effect of rivastigmine on the cholinergic transmission?
Extra info: Acetylcholine is metabolized by acetylcholine esterases. Inhibiting these esterases lead to a reduced breakdown of acetylcholine, and thus a increased presence/residence time of acetylcholine in the synaptic area.