last updated 15-07-2024

Peptic ulcer

Peptic ulcer

In this picture, the common causative factors for peptic ulceration are shown. They include the gastrointestinal pathogen Helicobacter pylori (1), too much gastric acid (2), too much pepsin (3), and a breakdown of the protective mucus (4).

Peptic ulcer erosions typically extend deeper into the muscularis mucosa than is portrayed. Other causes of peptic ulcers include the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (5), stress-related damage (6), radiation (7), and chemotherapy (5).


Most peptic ulcers are associated with