Vaccination involves the deliberate immunization of healthy people with a pathogen antigen or its subcomponents. This results in the stimulation of the immunological memory process. This process is induced by CD4-T cell dependent antigens which then produce either short or long-lived dormant clones of T (+B) lymphocytes. These rapidly expand after re-encounter with the antigens, stimulating specific B cells to proliferate to plasma cells, stimulating specific cytotoxic T cell lymphocytes.
There are 4 different types of immune response upon vaccination:
1. T cell independent-1 (TI-1 antigens) APC stimulate the proliferation of immature or mature B cells; increase plasma cells; stimulation of antibody production
2. T cell independent-2 (TI-2
3. TH1 cell dependent (TH1) APC stimulate the cross-linking TH1 cell with macrophage activation; increase plasma cells; stimulation of antibody production and memory
4. TH2 cell dependent (TH2) APC stimulate the cross-linking TH2 cell; stimulating B cell activation only; increase plasma cells; stimulation of antibody and memory
For further information: vaccines
No antibodies are produced after the initial exposure to the toxoid present in the vaccine.
Extra info: Antibodies are produced as a part of the primary antibody response
All immunological responses to vaccines begin with:
Extra info: APC cell presentation is the initial response to both T-cell independent and dependent immunological reactions
Which of the following vaccinations are usually recommended, on a yearly basis, for elderly patients with chronic respiratory conditions? I. Influenza virus; II. Pneumococcus; III. Meningococcus.
Extra info: Elderly people with chronic lung disease do not have a sufficient immune response to warrant utilization of the pneumococcal vaccine. Vaccination against Meningococcus is only recommended when there is an outbreak in a group of people (nursing home).