Encephalopathy

Encephalopathy

Encephalopathy is a metabolic disorder arising in the CNS of patients with liver failure. It is always associated with increased circulating levels of ammonia (NH3). Patients present with altered mental status, asterixis with flapping tremor, confusion, circadian rhythm disturbances, and decreased motor ability. The cause of hepatic encephalopathy is not known but is probably multifactorial:

1

Which of the following factors is unlikely to cause hepatic encephalopathy: