Bacterial protein synthesis

Bacterial protein synthesis

Bacterial ribosomes consist of a 30S and a 50S subunit. Translation of the RNA into protein occurs on the ribosomal complex. Transfer RNA carrying a specific amino acid binds with its anti-codon to the codon on the mRNA on the aminoacyl-tRNA binding-site (A-site; initiation) and will be transferred to the peptidyl-tRNA-binding site (P-site). The next amino acid brought by tRNA will bind the complex on the A-site next to the first tRNA (elongation).

The growing peptide chain attached to the tRNA on the P-site is transferred to the tRNA on the A-site (transpeptidation). The empty tRNA on the P-site is released and the tRNA with the peptide chain is translocated from the A-site to the P-site (translocation).


Drugs that inhibit bacterial protein synthesis are mostly bactericidal. 


Both humans and bacteria have 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits.