Acute medicine

Shock is a serious medical condition where tissue perfusion is impaired. It is usually accompanied by hypotension. Left untreated, shock is life-threatening and the risk for organ damage and death is significant. The most common causes of shock are situations that result in a reduction of intravascular volume (hypovolaemic shock), myocardial pump failure (cardiogenic shock), increased vascular capacitance (distributive shock), or obstruction of blood flow (obstructive shock).

Regardless of the aetiology, several symptoms are common in patients that present with shock. They include hypotension (SBP < 90 mm Hg), tachycardia, hyperventilation, cutaneous vasoconstriction (resulting in cold, clammy skin), and mental confusion.


Septic shock is an example of: