Surgical treatment is the best option in case of severe damage or inflammation of the gallbladder by gallstones. Surgical removal of the gallbladder (1, laparoscopic cholecystectomy) has no severe impact on the digestive process. Bile production continues, but the bile is no longer concentrated and its release in the duodenum is not closely tied to food arrival in the stomach. The circulation of bile salts is quicker and more fat is excreted via the digestive tract.
ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) is a diagnostic method that can also be used to remove gallstones.
Another non-pharmacological option to treat gallstones is the non-invasive method of lithotripsy (2). In this case, the gallstones are shattered by focused sound waves. The fragments of the stones become small enough to pass through the duct. Lithotripsy is not very effective and therefore infrequently used.
Concerning biliary pain, which statement is most accurate: