Pathological overproduction of PRL results from hypothalamic dysfunction (1), when dopamine cannot reach the prolactin cells, or from a pituitary tumor (2, prolactinoma). In addition to pathological overproduction of PRL, there are physiological (pregnancy) and pharmacological (certain drugs) causes.
Pathological hyperprolactinemia results in both man and women in infertility. The main treatment of pathological hyperprolactinemia consists of pharmacological inhibition of PRL secretion by dopamine agonists.
I. Gonadotropic hormones can increase PRL levels.
II. PRL secretion is inhibited by dopamine.
Extra info: Gonadotropic hormones stimulate the gonads (ovaries or testes) and do not influence any of the pituitary hormones such as PRL. Dopaminergic neurons from the hypothalamus have an inhibitory action on release of PRL by the pituitary.