β-blockers in glaucoma
β-adrenoreceptor antagonists are the first line of treatment for glaucoma. Examples such as carteolol, levobunolol, and timolol are non-selective blockers. They reduce the production of aqueous humour by blocking β1 and β2 receptors in the ciliary body. Betaxolol is an example of a β1 selective blocker.
β-blockers are well-tolerated and cause hardly any local side effects. Systemic adverse effects include exacerbation of comorbidities such as COPD and heart failure. Other effects are bradycardia, mood disturbances, depression, and erectile dysfunction.