All body cells rely on a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients and the ability to dispose of waste. The heart is the pump that supplies the body with blood, which is distributed around the body via a network of blood vessels. The heart contains four chambers: the right and left atria, and the right and left ventricles. The right atrium receives blood from the systemic circulation and passes it to the right ventricle. The blood then enters the pulmonary circulation to be loaded with oxygen from the lungs. Oxygen-rich blood returns in the left atrium and is pumped into the systemic circulation by the left ventricle. After supplying body cells in all organs (brain, liver, kidneys, muscles, intestine, and the heart itself), the blood returns once more to the right atrium.
This chapter discusses the following topics:
- cardiac muscle electrophysiology;
- cardiac function, including the pathophysiology and treatment of heart failure;
- innervation of the heart, including the pathophysiology and treatment of heart rhythm disorders;
- oxygen in the myocardium, including the pathophysiology and treatment of angina pectoris; and
- blood pressure control.
The blood supply to the muscles of the heart is provided by the
Extra info: Coronary arteries supply blood to the cardiac muscles.
Sudden assumption of an upright position from supine position causes an initial decrease in:
Extra info: The consequences are: venous pooling, reduced cardiac output, increased total peripheral resistance, tachycardia, and increase in stimulation of the rennin-angiotensin system.
During diastole, a chamber of the heart
The amount of blood that is forced out of the heart depends on
What is true about microcirculation?
Extra info: Close Arterioles contain muscle, capillaries do not. Capillaries have walls made up of a single layer of cells. Capillaries have no innervation.
Blood leaves the left ventricle by passing through the
Blood vessels that supply the walls of arteries and veins with blood are