Systemic lupus erythematosus

Immunology of SLE

The following model has been proposed for SLE:

1. Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) take up necrotic cells and their antigens.

2. Inan inflammatory microenvironment auto-antigens are processed by APCs and presented to autoreactive Tcells.

3.

Autoreactive B cells take up autoantigen and arestimulated to proliferate by autoreactive primed T cells.

4. Plasma cells derived from stimulatedautoreactive T cells secrete auto-antibodies, which cause inflammatory disease.

1

Which of the following biological molecules is never tested positive in SLE?