Post menopause

Menopausal symptoms

At the end of female reproductive life, the ovaries are out of primordial follicles. This means, that oocytes, granulosa cells, and thecal cells are no longer present. After menopause, women have very low estradiol and progesterone levels and thus (by absence of their negative feedback) high gonadotropin levels. All the unwanted symptoms of menopause are due to estrogen deficiency and affect estrogen-sensitive tissues.


Clinical features of the so-called postmenopausal period are flushes, sweating in the night and dry mucous tissues. Changes in the urogenital tract can cause vaginal dryness and atrophy, dyspareunia, urge incontinence, and frequent urinary tract infections.

Due to the low estrogen levels, the risk for osteoporosis and myocardial infarction increases significantly.


In perimenopause..