Cell wall synthesis

Cell wall synthesis

The cell wall of bacteria contains a network of peptidoglycans. At the inner side of the cell membrane the components are assembled (5 amino acids, N-acetylglucosamine and acetylmuramate) and attached to a phospholipid. Then the lipid with the attached peptidoglycan is translocated to the outside of the cell membrane.

The cross-linking of the peptidoglycan to the existing network is performed by enzymes called penicillin binding proteins and consists of two processes: transglycosylation (carboxypeptidases) and transpeptidation (transpeptidases).


In general, Gram-negative bacteria are susceptible to cephalosporins. 


Hydrolysis of the B-lactam ring by B-lactamases is necessary for penicillin action.