Epilepsy refers to a condition in which a patient has recurrent seizures. A seizure is defined as a clinical condition as the result of an uncontrolled spread of electrical activity in the brain due to abnormal function of ion channels and neuronal networks. The symptoms of seizures can vary depending on the localization of the focus site. The symptoms range from loss of consciousness and behavioural changes towards prominent autonomic or motor symptoms and all kinds of sensations and impaired high order functions such as memory and speech.
Epilepsy is classified according the type and kind of seizure (see chart below). The pathophysiology of seizures is explained in the following slides. As the exact pathophysiological mechanism is unknown, but two possible mechanisms (cellular and neuronal network) that control synchronous firing will be explained.