last updated 24-06-2024

Gastro-oesophageal reflux

Reflux disease

This figure shows the common causes of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. These include a lack of saliva, poor peristaltic movement through the oesophagus, decreased lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) pressure, transient episodes of LES relaxation, delayed gastric emptying, and increased gastric acid.

Therapy is aimed at decreasing gastrointestinal gastric acid, increasing gastric motility, or increasing LES tone.


Acid-reducing therapy should aim at high pH levels in order to inactivate pepsin. This is usually obtained at pH levels above: