Diabetes insipidus

Diabetes insipidus

Deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also called vasopressin, results in diabetes insipidus. As a consequence, the control of the water secretion in urine, and thus of the water volume in the body, is lost. Symptoms such as polyuria, dehydration and excessive drinking occur.

Diabetes insipidus can have its origin in the supraoptic nucleus, pituitary or kidney:

  1. Dysfunction or destruction of the supraoptic nucleus
  2. Posterior pituitary dysfunction, such as caused by a tumor, inflammation or trauma
  3. Impaired response by the kidney, such as a defective vasopressin receptor
1

The primary function of ADH is to

2

I. The rise in serum osmolality stimulates thirst. II. Reduced fluid losses in urine due to the retention of sodium ions is a result of vasopressin action.